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Reference ID Created Released Classification Origin
10REYKJAVIK31 2010-02-23 16:04 2011-01-13 05:05 UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Embassy Reykjavik
DE RUEHRK #0031/01 0541631
O 231631Z FEB 10
E.O. 12958: N/A 
REF: A) 09 STATE 2094 
REYKJAVIK 00000031  001.3 OF 010 
1.  (SBU) Summary:  In 2009 Iceland took significant steps to combat 
trafficking in persons. The Government of Iceland, for the first 
time, prosecuted alleged trafficking violators on TIP specific 
charges. In addition, the government passed and began to implement 
the country's first anti-TIP national action plan.  The parliament 
also passed legislation that aligns Iceland's legal definition on 
human trafficking with that of the Palermo Protocol, thus paving the 
way for possible ratification of the protocol this year. 
Iceland is a country of destination and transit for trafficked women 
(primarily in the sex industry) and to a lesser extent for men 
(restaurant and construction industry).  It is not believed to be a 
source country and there are no current indications of trafficking 
within Iceland.  Most alleged cases include underpaid and/or 
mistreated workers in nightclubs and massage parlors as well as 
prostitutes trafficked from Eastern Europe, Africa, Brazil, and 
Southeast Asia.  The government provided trafficking victims and 
witnesses with police protection and social assistance.  End 
2.  (SBU) Embassy point of contact on the trafficking in persons 
(TIP) issue is Political Officer Josh Rubin, tel. 
+354-562-9100x2294, fax +354-562-9139, unclassified e-mail 
Hours spent on preparation: 
- Pol Officer (FS 03) 25 hrs 
- Pol Assistant  51 hrs 
- A/DCM     5 hrs 
Total:    81 hrs 
Begin text of submission: 
-- A.  The amount of information available and the attention focused 
on the TIP problem in Iceland increased dramatically this year, due 
in large part to several high profile TIP cases.  The media reported 
extensively on the subject, government officials spoke openly about 
the problem and the NGO community became more engaged on the topic. 
Most information regarding human trafficking remains anecdotal in 
nature.  The Icelandic Red Cross published a comprehensive report in 
August on the human trafficking problem in Iceland.  The report 
claimed that there were at least 59 and possibly as many as 128 
cases of human trafficking to Iceland in the past three years.  This 
estimate, which relied heavily on second-hand information and 
anecdotes, is the first attempt to quantify the trafficking problem 
in Iceland.  The Government of Iceland chose to neither publicly 
confirm nor dispute these figures.  Privately, however, several 
government officials opined that the figures in the Red Cross report 
were too high.  The government does intend to commission its own 
analysis of the trafficking situation in Iceland in the near 
Extensive media reporting on TIP issues occurred during the year, 
most of it related to two high-profile incidents of alleged 
trafficking that are discussed in question B.  Also receiving 
significant media coverage was the unveiling in March of the 
country's first comprehensive anti-trafficking action plan and a 
government-sponsored TIP symposium that took place in October. 
Media coverage of these incidents and events was generally accurate 
and objective. 
-- B.  Iceland is a country of destination and transit for 
trafficked women (primarily in the sex industry) and to a lesser 
extent for men (restaurant and construction industry).  It is not 
believed to be a source country and there are no current indications 
of trafficking within Iceland.  Post sources agree that, with rare 
exceptions, victims are trafficked primarily to the greater 
Reykjavik metropolitan area. 
REYKJAVIK 00000031  002.3 OF 010 
The Red Cross report, mentioned earlier in question A, posits that 
70 percent of all trafficking victims in Iceland are associated with 
the sex industry.  Most alleged cases include underpaid and/or 
mistreated workers in nightclubs and massage parlors as well as 
prostitutes trafficked from Eastern Europe, Africa, Brazil, and 
Southeast Asia.  Nightclub and massage parlor workers -- who are 
allegedly forced to work as prostitutes -- may stay for several 
months before being trafficked onward, while other prostitutes may 
spend only a few days in Reykjavik before being moved abroad. 
Two high profile incidents relating to sex trafficking occurred in 
Iceland this year. 
--  In October 2009, prosecutors indicted Catalina Ncogo, an 
Icelandic citizen of Equatorial Guinean origin, on charges of human 
trafficking, profiting from prostitution as a third party, and drug 
smuggling.  Ncogo was accused of deceiving another woman, a 
compatriot from Equatorial Guinea, into coming to Iceland for a 
vacation and then holding her captive for a number of months.  The 
trafficking indictment was the first charge of this nature in 
Iceland.  On December 1 the Reykjanes District Court acquitted Ncogo 
of the human trafficking charge, but convicted her on the charges of 
profiting from prostitution and drug smuggling.  She was sentenced 
to two years in jail but she appealed the decision to the Supreme 
Court.  In addition, the State Prosecutor appealed the not guilty 
verdict on trafficking charges to the Supreme Court.  Two days 
later, Ncogo was arrested again on charges of trafficking in a 
separate case.  She remains in custody and no trial date has been 
set for either of her pending cases. 
--   Five Lithuanian men were indicted in the District Court of 
Reykjanes in January 2010 on charges of human trafficking.  The men 
were accused of bringing a 19-year-old girl from Lithuania to 
Iceland with the intention of sexually exploiting her.  The 
Reykjanes Police uncovered the plot upon the woman's arrival in 
country and she was quickly placed under 24-hour protective 
surveillance.  The alleged perpetrators have remained under police 
custody since their arrest in October.  The five Lithuanian men, as 
well as one Icelander who was also later indicted on charges of 
human trafficking relating to the incident, were tried in court and 
a verdict is pending. 
Reports of labor exploitation of foreign construction workers (in 
rare cases, possibly trafficked to Iceland) have decreased 
dramatically in the past few years.  Undocumented foreign workers - 
mostly Baltic and Eastern European - in Iceland's construction and 
manufacturing sector may be exploited, but most sources believe that 
these are cases of immigrant and employment law violations rather 
than trafficking in persons.  Press accounts of such cases have 
drastically decreased during the reporting period compared to 
previous years; probably because the demand for such workers has 
decreased in the wake of Iceland's financial and economic crisis. 
There was no evidence of trafficking in children. 
-- C.  With regard to sex trafficking, most alleged cases include 
underpaid and/or mistreated workers in nightclubs and massage 
parlors.  Nightclub dancers are allegedly encouraged, and possibly 
obligated, to provide sexual services during performances in private 
rooms as well as to make prostitution calls outside the clubs. 
Foreign prostitutes brought to Iceland for shorter periods of time 
are allegedly required to provide sexual services in hotels or 
private apartments, where they stay during their time in the 
Reports of undocumented foreign workers living in industrial space 
and less-than-optimal living conditions have mostly vanished from 
Icelandic news reports.  Many of the Eastern European and Baltic 
citizens who came to Iceland in search of employment appear to have 
returned to their home countries in the wake of the financial and 
economic crisis that hit Iceland in October 2008. 
-- D.  Women from Eastern Europe, Russia, Africa, Brazil, and 
Southeast Asia, involved in the sex industry, appear to be the 
primary victims of TIP in Iceland. 
REYKJAVIK 00000031  003.3 OF 010 
-- E.  Traffickers in Iceland tend to operate in small groups, 
either independently or with ties to larger organized crime 
syndicates.  A February 2009 report by the National Police 
Commissioner confirmed the existence of organized prostitution in 
Iceland.  The report went on to suggest that Icelandic criminal 
elements likely serve as local agents for foreign organized crime 
rings who may be financing prostitution operations.  Traffickers in 
Iceland, the report concluded, are also likely connected with 
dealers of illegal narcotics. 
Traffickers allegedly take advantage of international laws to 
transport their victims into and out of Iceland.  Iceland is in the 
Schengen Zone as well as the European Economic Area (EEA), which 
allows for the free passage of travelers and workers between Iceland 
and other European countries.  Workers from EEA countries may come 
to Iceland visa-free for up to three months to seek employment. 
Traffickers reportedly use this provision to bring prostitutes to 
the country and then move them again before the expiration of the 
three-month period, thereby removing the need for false documents or 
fraudulent work permit applications. 
There are no reports of travel or employment agencies or marriage 
brokers acting as fronts for traffickers. 
-- A.  The government of Iceland has acknowledged that trafficking 
is a worldwide problem from which Iceland is not immune. Several of 
Iceland's highest officials have spoken publicly about the problem. 
Foreign Minister Ossur Skarphedinsson opened a government-sponsored 
symposium on human trafficking by declaring the GOI's unwavering 
support for the fight against human trafficking. He stressed that 
TIP was a problem in the country and a top priority for the 
government. Noting that the GOI has already drafted and issued a 
national anti-TIP action plan, the Minister said ratifying the 
Palermo Protocol during the current parliamentary season was 
imperative. More than 100 people attended the symposium which was 
sponsored by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of 
Justice and Human Rights on October 30. 
Earlier, in March, the Minister of Social Affairs at the time, Asta 
Ragnheidur Johannesdottir, acknowledged that trafficking was a 
problem when she presented the first Icelandic anti-TIP action plan 
to parliament. At that time, she said, "Human trafficking is one of 
the most appalling forms of transnational organized crime and it is 
very important to capture the traffickers and provide trafficking 
victims with protection and assistance.  The government's message 
[with this action plan] is clear; human trafficking will not be 
tolerated here."  The action plan includes several key steps 
including: criminalizing the buying of sex; banning and outlawing 
strip clubs; granting temporary residence permits to TIP victims and 
establishing an expert anti-TIP team to oversee TIP issues in 
Iceland. Several of these steps have been implemented but most are 
not yet in force.  The government hopes to have them all enacted by 
the end of 2012 (see section 5 (Prevention) for details on what has 
been done). 
-- B.  On October 1, the Ministry of Justice and Ecclesiastical 
Affairs became the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights and, at the 
same time, it became the lead agency for TIP issues, taking over 
from the Ministry of Social Affairs. Institutions and agencies under 
the Ministry of Justice that share TIP responsibilities include: the 
Directorate of Immigration, the State Prosecutor's Office, and the 
National Commissioner of Police and local police forces. The 
Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Social Affairs 
(including the Equal Rights Office and Directorate of Labor) are 
also involved in anti-trafficking efforts. 
-- C.  In previous years, lack of a detailed understanding of the 
problem of human trafficking was an obstacle to moving forward on 
the issue. A previous Minister of Justice famously stated that 
drafting an anti-TIP action plan was not that urgent and that 
concrete actions spoke louder than words. This attitude has changed, 
REYKJAVIK 00000031  004.3 OF 010 
however, with the increased attention that the matter is receiving 
in the media. The fight against TIP is now on the radar screen and 
the current government is taking active steps to combat the 
The major obstacle to combating TIP is now funding and resources, 
especially for law enforcement. The country's entire local and 
national police forces are comprised of only 834 individuals (as of 
February 1, 2009). While law enforcement officials note that there 
are many advantages to operating with such a small police force, 
there are also obvious limits on the amount of resources that can be 
devoted specifically to the problem of TIP. To compound the problem, 
Iceland's already stretched law enforcement resources are shrinking 
in the wake of the economic crisis that began in October 2008. 
Corruption does not pose a problem for TIP resources in Iceland. 
According to government officials, funding for TIP victim assistance 
is also not a problem in Iceland.  Government officials noted, 
however, that funding for trafficking victims is currently drawn 
from a general "foreigners in need" funding allotment and not from a 
TIP specific allotment. 
-- D.  There is no systematic monitoring or reporting by the 
government of its anti-trafficking efforts.  According to officials 
at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, however, the Government of 
Iceland provides some self-reporting on the trafficking situation 
via the mandatory reports that it submits to UN bodies and to the 
International Organization for Migration. These reports are 
publically accessible. 
According to the anti-TIP action plan, however, the Specialist and 
Coordination Team for Human Trafficking intends to introduce a 
registration system concerning possible TIP cases in Iceland. This 
registry will be used to monitor the status of human trafficking in 
Iceland and trends that occur in this arena.  The general findings 
and statistics from this effort will be made available to Icelandic 
authorities and international organizations. 
-- E.  The National Register of Persons is a register of all those 
who have been domiciled in Iceland since 1952. The registered items 
include ID number, name, domicile, citizenship, previous countries 
of citizenship, country of origin, etc. In addition, all changes to 
an individual's civil status are maintained, among them birth, 
baptism, marital status, domicile, death, etc.  All residents of 
Iceland, both Icelandic and foreign, are registered in the National 
Register of Persons. Only tourists, whether on tourist visa or not, 
are not registered. 
--F.  Law enforcement information is generally accessible to the 
government and the two sides cooperate well on combating 
trafficking. Law enforcement officials maintain records on the 
number of reported trafficking incidents, subsequent investigations 
and indictments. The Icelandic Specialist and Coordination Team for 
Human Trafficking has access to this information and, if needed, 
could comprehensively assess law enforcement efforts. 
-- A.  Iceland passed legislation on March 10, 2003 specifically 
prohibiting the trafficking of persons.  In December 2009, 
parliament amended the legislation and updated slightly the 
definition of what qualifies as trafficking in Iceland. The 
Icelandic definition of trafficking is now aligned with that of the 
Palermo Protocol. The government says that this will pave the way 
for ratification of the protocol in 2010.  Some experts also believe 
that the amended language could make convictions easier to achieve. 
The full text of Article 227a of Iceland's General Penal Code 
outlawing trafficking in persons now states: 
Anyone becoming guilty of the following acts, one or more, for the 
purpose of sexually abusing a person or for forced labor or to 
remove his/her organs shall be punished for human trafficking with 
up to 8 years imprisonment: 
1. Procuring, removing, handing over, removing, housing or accepting 
someone who has been subjected to unlawful force under Art. 225 or 
REYKJAVIK 00000031  005.3 OF 010 
deprived of freedom as per Art. 226 or threat as per Art. 233 or 
unlawful deception by awakening, strengthening or exploiting his/her 
lack of understanding of the person concerned about circumstances or 
by exploiting the wretched condition of the person concerned. 
2. Procuring, removing, handing over, housing or accepting an 
individual younger than 18 years of age. 
3. Rendering payment or other gain in order to acquire the approval 
for the abuse from a person who has the power over the actions of 
another person. 
The same penalty shall be applied to a person accepting payment or 
other gain according to clause 3, para. 1. 
If a child is violated against, as per para. 1, then this shall be 
taken into account to make the sentence more severe. The same 
penalty shall be applied to a person who is guilty of the following 
acts, one or more, that are intended to facilitate human 
1. Falsifying travel and identification documents. 
2. Aiding and abetting the procurement of such identification, 
either directly or indirectly. 
3. Withholding, removing, damaging, or destroying the travel and 
identification documents of another person. 
The law covers both internal and transnational forms of trafficking. 
The government has, in the past, prosecuted trafficking-related 
cases under the General Penal Code Articles 57 and 155, which outlaw 
alien smuggling and document forgery, respectively. 
-- B.  Trafficking of persons for sexual exploitation is punishable 
by up to eight years in prison. 
-- C.  Trafficking of persons for forced labor is punishable by up 
to eight years in prison.  The law explicitly outlaws the 
confiscation of passports or travel documents.  It also outlaws the 
exploitation of a person's lack of knowledge or wretched conditions. 
 (The law can be found, in its entirety, under question A of this 
-- D.  Rape is punishable by up to 16 years in prison, but actual 
sentences are generally range from only one to three years' 
imprisonment.  The maximum penalty for TIP violators is 8 years of 
imprisonment but there have been no guilty verdicts yet handed out, 
so actual penalties for TIP violations are unknown.  It is not 
possible, at this time, to compare the actual penalties prescribed 
for rape violators to those prescribed for TIP violators.  However, 
two current cases involving alleged TIP violators are ongoing.  If 
the accused are found guilty, the actual sentences handed down by 
the courts would give the first indication of how penalties for 
these two crimes compare. 
-- E.  Police conducted three investigations during the reporting 
period.  The government prosecuted a total of eight individuals on 
charges of trafficking stemming from these investigations.  One 
individual was found not guilty of the trafficking charges (although 
she was found guilty of profiting from prostitution as a third party 
and drug smuggling) and the remaining seven indictments are still 
pending.  (The full details regarding these investigations and 
indictments can be found in section 1, question B). 
-- F.  Students from the Icelandic National Police College annually 
participate in classes held by the Sudurnes Commissioner of Police 
and Customs that include instruction on recognizing and 
investigating human trafficking issues. During the reporting period, 
an OSCE representative, who specializes in TIP issues, participated 
in the instruction. Additionally, senior Keflavik International 
Airport officials and border police have been funded by the 
government to attend anti-trafficking courses abroad, e.g. at the 
European Police Academy, as well as conferences on TIP sponsored by, 
for example, the OSCE, FRONTEX, and the Nordic Council of 
--G.  During the reporting period, the Sudurnes police district 
(that includes Keflavik International Airport) cooperated with 
Lithuanian police authorities on a prominent TIP case involving the 
trafficking of a young Lithuanian woman. The Sudurnes Police also 
REYKJAVIK 00000031  006.3 OF 010 
cooperated with INTERPOL and EUROPOL on this case. 
The Metropolitan police cooperated with Spanish authorities on the 
TIP case involving a trafficking violator of Equatorial Guinean 
descent.  The assistance of Spanish authorities became necessary 
when it was determined that two of the purported victims in that 
case were Spanish citizens (additional details regarding these two 
cases can be found in section 1, question B). 
-- H.  Iceland has not been asked to extradite a trafficking suspect 
to another country.  Icelandic law does not permit extradition of 
Icelandic nationals, and no changes to the law are currently 
-- I.  No; not applicable. 
-- J.  There is no evidence of government officials being involved 
in trafficking, and no government officials have ever been 
investigated, prosecuted or convicted for such activity. 
-- K.  Iceland does not have a military.  However, it has deployed 
civilian personnel to UN and NATO operations as peacekeepers under 
the auspices of the Icelandic Crisis Response Unit (ICRU), a 
division of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs.  The MFA has imposed a 
code of conduct for ICRU personnel specifically banning involvement 
in TIP or the purchase of sexual services while abroad.  There were 
no allegations of any such behavior by ICRU personnel. 
-- L.  There is no identified problem of child sex tourism in 
Iceland nor are there any reports of Icelanders operating as child 
sex perpetrators. 
-- A.  There is no specific provision in the law guaranteeing 
government protection to TIP victims and witnesses.  In practice, 
however, the government has provided this service when the situation 
warrants.  The most notable example of this occurred in the case 
involving a Lithuanian victim (full details regarding the case can 
be found in Section A, part B).  In that instance the victim, upon 
arrival, was immediately placed under 24-hour protective police 
surveillance. The victim remains under police surveillance at the 
end of the reporting period. In addition, at least one witness in 
the case, and a second witness in a different case, were also placed 
under police surveillance. 
-- B.  There are no government-run victim care facilities that are 
specifically dedicated to assisting TIP victims.  In the past, 
however, purported TIP victims have been received by the Women's 
Shelter in Reykjavik.  The shelter is run independently from the 
government but, like most organizations in Iceland, it relies 
heavily on government funding.  The 2010 state budget allocates IKR 
40.2 million ($321,600) to the Women's Shelter.  Foreign victims 
have the same access to this shelter as domestic TIP victims. 
In addition, the government has demonstrated the capacity to provide 
a private domicile in unique individual instances.  This notably 
occurred in the case of a Lithuanian trafficking victim (full 
details in Section 1, question A).  The victim, shortly upon her 
arrival in country, was placed in a private domicile for safety 
concerns.  The victim remains in this private domicile at the end of 
the reporting period. 
There is no specialized care center for male victims, however, they 
may avail themselves of general social services.  The national and 
local governments may also refer male victims to NGOs that provide 
food, shelter, legal advice, and health care. In cases involving 
unaccompanied children, municipal and state child protection 
services are responsible for assistance. 
-- C.  According to a regulation that the Minister of Health 
approved in December, TIP victims are now entitled to free medical 
care even if they are not covered by Icelandic medical insurance. 
Prior to this change, trafficking victims were provided with free 
access to the medical system via a provision that governs general 
victims' protection. 
REYKJAVIK 00000031  007.3 OF 010 
The general victims' protection law is currently used to provide 
victims of trafficking with free legal services.  Under this law, 
all victims are appointed a legal counsel that can guide the victim 
thrugh the Icelandic legal process and inform victimsregarding 
their rights.  This counsel can also ac as the victim's attorney 
should the victim requre legal representation in court. 
There are no sychological services that are specific to trafficing 
victims.  Trafficking victims, however, reguarly utilize the 
services of the Icelandic Counseing and Information Center for 
Survivors of Sexul Violence (Stigamot).  The center is run 
indepedently from the government but, like most organizaions in 
Iceland, it relies heavily on governmentfunding.  The 2010 state 
budget allocates IKR 33.2 million ($265,600) to Stigamot. 
-- D.  The government, through the Directorate of Immigration, 
granted a temporary residence permit on humanitarian grounds to at 
least one TIP victim during the reporting period. This was done in 
the case of a 19-year-old Lithuanian trafficking victim in a 
prominent case. 
The government also intends to present a bill to parliament in the 
immediate future that will create a temporary residence permit 
system that is specific to victims of trafficking.  The permit will 
grant residency status for a six-month reflection period to any 
individual if there is the mere suspicion that the victim was 
trafficked.  A second permit, valid for one year with the 
opportunity to renew, will also be made available to victims that 
cooperate with the government or have particularly compelling 
-- E.  There is no specific legal provision for long-term government 
assistance to TIP victims.  Trafficking victims, however, may avail 
themselves of the numerous social service programs that exist in 
Iceland.  These programs are available to those members of society 
who need assistance in rebuilding their lives. 
-- F.  There is no official referral process to transfer victims 
from protective custody to institutions that provide short- or 
long-term care.  In practice, however, an informal system appears to 
be functioning effectively.  The Women's Shelter and the Women's 
Counseling Center (Stigamot) in Reykjavik reported close relations 
with the local police force and stated that victims are generally 
informed by law enforcement officials regarding the social services 
available to them.  While not officially transferred to the Women's 
Shelter or the Counseling Center, victims are generally pointed in 
those directions. 
The anti-TIP action plan, however, calls for the formation of a more 
stringent referral system. One of the action items entitled "The 
Rules of Procedures for the Police," states that the police should 
establish rules of procedure for contacting and dealing with alleged 
victims of human trafficking.  These standardized procedures should 
ensure that all alleged victims are informed of the remedies 
available to assist them. 
-- G.  In the three formal TIP investigations that occurred during 
this reporting period, there were three trafficking victims 
identified--one in each case.  All of these individuals were victims 
of sexual exploitation and all received varying degrees of social 
services.   The Government of Iceland, however, does not produce 
official statistics regarding the total number of trafficking 
victims and it is possible that other victims exist. 
-- H.  The government does not have a formal system to proactively 
identify victims of trafficking.  The police, however, have received 
"passenger analysis" training that they employ at the airports.  It 
is this technique that is, in part, credited with identifying the 
Lithuanian trafficking victim at Keflavik International Airport.  In 
addition, the government is working to design a checklist for 
customs and law enforcement officials that can be used to assist in 
identifying potential trafficking victims. 
Prostitution is legal in Iceland, however, the advertisement of 
prostitution, the purchasing of sex and profiting from prostitution 
REYKJAVIK 00000031  008.3 OF 010 
as a third party are all illegal.  There is, therefore, no legal or 
regulated commercial sex trade in Iceland.  Those law enforcement 
officers who most regularly deal with the country's illegal sex 
industry have received TIP-specific training and are cognizant of 
the need to protect victims' rights. 
-- I.  The rights of trafficking victims are generally respected. 
While no individual specifically identified as a trafficking victim 
was detained or jailed, it is not uncommon for alleged immigration 
violators or alleged violators of sex-industry laws to be detained. 
Unidentified TIP victims may have been included in those detained. 
-- J.  The government encourages victims to assist in the 
investigation and prosecution of trafficking. Victims may file civil 
suits or seek legal action against traffickers and there are no 
impediments to their access to legal redress. There is also no 
specific provision in the law to prevent a material witness in a 
court case against a former employer from obtaining other employment 
or leaving the country.  While there is no specific restitution 
program for victims of trafficking in persons, such a program exists 
for victims of violence and may be applicable for TIP victims. 
-- K.  The government provides its officials with TIP specific 
training.  All employees of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs received 
TIP training organized by Iceland's Specialist and Coordination Team 
for Human Trafficking.  The training was designed to underscore the 
importance of the trafficking problem and to increase awareness 
among government officials regarding the issue. 
As Iceland is not a source country for TIP victims, there have been 
no victims assisted by Icelandic diplomats and consular personnel 
abroad during the reporting period. 
-- L.  There have been no such cases identified in the reporting 
period.  While repatriated nationals would benefit from the same 
social safety net as any other Icelander, there are no programs 
specifically for victims of trafficking. 
-- M.  No international organizations or NGOs worked with 
trafficking victims in Iceland during the reporting period.  As 
mentioned earlier, however, local NGOs were active. 
-- A.  There were no specific anti-TIP information or education 
campaigns conducted in Iceland this year.  In previous years, the 
government-funded Women's Counseling Center (Stigamot) conducted 
information campaigns against rape and the purchasing of sexual 
services.  The campaigns were targeted at men and had the goal of 
reducing the demand for the purchase of sexual services.  These 
campaigns, however, were not utilized this year. 
According to the new anti-TIP action plan the government plans to 
launch a similar educational campaign in 2010 that will also be 
directed at the buyers of prostitution services, pornography and 
other kinds of sex services. Another stated goal of the action plan 
is to prepare a comprehensive educational program for professionals 
and for public employees who, in their work, deal with human 
-- B.  The government monitors immigration and emigration patterns 
for evidence of trafficking.  In addition, the government screens 
for potential trafficking victims at Keflavik International Airport, 
the country's sole international airport. 
-- C.  In November, the Minister of Justice and Human Rights 
appointed the Specialist and Coordination Team for Human Trafficking 
in accordance with the new anti-TIP action plan. The Coordination 
Team is the primary mechanism for interagency coordination and is 
responsible for supervising all matters regarding human trafficking 
in Iceland. The team consists of members from all the relevant 
agencies and also includes representatives from those NGOs that 
provide aid to TIP victems (including the Women's Counseling Center 
and the Women's Shelter).  The various law enforcement agencies are 
also represented on the Coordination Team. 
REYKJAVIK 00000031  009.3 OF 010 
In addition, there is a Ministry of Justice appointed coordination 
group on foreigner issues that regularly discusses TIP issues as 
part of its agenda. The group consists of the National Police 
Commissioner, members of the Metropolitan Police, the Sudurnes 
Police Commissioner (covering Keflavik International Airport) and 
the Directorate of Immigration. 
-- D.  The Icelandic parliament approved the adoption of the first 
Icelandic national plan of action to address TIP in March 2009. The 
action plan is divided into the following nine chapters: 
1. Ratification of international treaties and harmonization of 
Icelandic legislation. 
2. Specialist and co-ordination team and the supervision of affairs 
concerning human trafficking. 
3. Education to professionals and public officials. 
4. Protection of victims and aid to victims. 
5. Police provisions and investigation into alleged trafficking in 
6. Actions against demand in the prostitution and pornography 
7. International co-operation. 
8. Proactive search and emergency phone numbers. 
9. Registration of information and intelligence gathering. 
Several of the goals recommended in the report have been enacted but 
the majority of them are not yet in force. The government hopes to 
have them all enacted by the end of 2012.  So far, the government 
has either achieved or made significant progress on the following 
goals from the national action plan: appointed the Specialist and 
Coordination Team; criminalized the buying of sexual services; 
aligned the legal definition of human trafficking with that of the 
Palermo Protocol (but ratification of the protocol is still 
pending); provided TIP victims with legal counsel; submitted a bill 
to parliament that would prohibit any kind of nude shows in places 
of entertainment; and submitted a bill to parliament on a code of 
conduct that would make clear that the purchase of sex services by 
any Icelandic Government representative will not be tolerated. 
-- E:  In April, parliament passed a law criminalizing the buying of 
sexual services.  While prostitution remains legal in Iceland, it is 
now illegal to purchase sexual services, profit from prostitution as 
a third party or advertise prostitution services. Criminalizing the 
purchasing of sexual services was one of the goals explicitly stated 
in the new action plan against human trafficking. 
In addition, over the past several years, the government has taken 
legal measures to reduce the number of strip clubs operating in 
Iceland.  Post sources believe this to be important as they claim 
that strip clubs are the predominant loci of prostitution and TIP 
cases.  At the end of the reporting period, five or fewer strip 
clubs remained in operation in the whole country.  Although 
legislation effectively outlaws strip shows, the owners of these 
remaining clubs were apparently able to exploit loopholes in the law 
on the operations of entertainment establishments to remain in 
-- F.  There have been no government actions taken to reduce the 
participation of Icelandic nationals in international child sex 
tourism.  There were no cases during the reporting period in which 
Icelandic nationals were alleged to have participated in child sex 
-- G.  Not applicable. 
-- A.  The government has cooperated on TIP issues with the OSCE, 
the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the Council of Baltic Sea 
States (Task Force on Trafficking in Human Beings), and the Nordic 
Council of Ministers. 
The government also sponsored an international symposium on human 
trafficking in October, the first of its kind in Iceland. The OSCE's 
deputy TIP official participated in the symposium. More than 100 
people attended the symposium which was sponsored by the Ministry of 
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Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights. 
In addition, Embassy Reykjavik and G/TIP organized a DVC with 
Icelandic government officials, NGOs representatives, and police 
officials in January. 
-- B.  The Icelandic government annually provides financial 
assistance earmarked for TIP field projects in a specific developing 
country via the OSCE. The OSCE handles the details of the project 
and advises the Icelandic government where to send the assistance. 
In 2009, Iceland contributed ISK 3.1 million ($24,800) to Azerbaijan 
through the OSCE.